Almost since the beginning, humanity's interest in Antarctica has been rooted in scientific curiosity. Initially, that curiosity was simply geographical, though many of the early explorers also took weather readings and collected biological samples when possible. Captain James Cook made every effort to collect scientific specimens and record data, though his primary goal was to locate the southern continent. Even some of the early sealers, whose overriding objective was profit, made an effort to carefully chart newly discovered land and collect scientific samples. James Weddell, for example, brought back the first samples of a new species, the weddell seal. Three of the early, major national expeditions, those of Charles Wilkes (United States), Jules-Sébastien- César Dumont d'Urville (France), and James Clark Ross (Britain), were aimed at taking careful geomagnetic readings and locating the south magnetic pole. (For a more complete accounting of human exploration in Antarctica, see the History section on this site.)
The turn of the century brought an intense wave of exploration to Antarctica. Explorers like Scott, Borchgrevink, Drygalski, Shackleton, Charcot, Gerlache, Mawson, Bruce, Nordensjköld, and others took established scientists with them or made observations and collections on their own. The scope of research steadily expanded to include not only geography, biology, and meteorology, but oceanography, glaciology, geology, and other disciplines. Just as important, semi-permanent stations were established from which long term research could be conducted, in contrast to the earlier ship-borne, and therefore limited, studies. From these semi- permanent, land-based stations, explorers and scientists could make substantial forays into the interior of the continent. Geographical discovery, however, was generally still the main objective.
As the mechanized age got underway, largely through the efforts of Richard Byrd, pure science began to replace the geography-driven exploration of earlier expeditions. This trend took a giant leap forward with the advent of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Permanent stations were established by several countries with the express goal of conducting geophysical science. At the same time, advancing technology began to expand the scope and execution of scientific studies. Long term astronomical, astrophysical, geological, and biological programs were begun. A secure station and good logistical support allowed researchers to begin asking questions that simple observation could not answer. They began to move away from the strictly observational to the experimental.
This trend has continued and intensified, especially as researchers have begun to recognize Antarctica's importance to global climate and oceanic productivity. Nowhere is this trend more clearly represented than at McMurdo Station. For over thirty years, science facilities there consisted of two temporary and cobbled-together buildings, the Eklund Biological Center and the Thiel Earth Sciences Laboratory. In 1992, however, the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) dedicated a new, 43,000 square foot laboratory that is superior in space and instrumentation to most American university facilities. In addition, construction has begun on a new station facility at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and in recent years two state-of-the-art research vessels have entered service in the U.S. Antarctic Program. If the U.S. effort is any indication, science is the primary human activity in the Antarctic, and it is likely to remain that way for the foreseeable future.
This situation is reflected in the political environment. With the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, a precedent was established. Territorial claims were placed in abeyance and the primacy of science was clearly noted. Each additional Annex or Protocol to the Treaty has reiterated and strengthened that stance. Though the continent has in the past been subjected to intense biological exploitation, Antarctica is now universally recognized, both in the popular imagination and by international law, as a continent dedicated to the pursuit of science.
The scientific research currently conducted under the auspices of the USAP is eclectic, wide-ranging, and cutting-edge. It covers the entire spectrum of scientific inquiry, from astrophysics to exobiology. Antarctic researchers are responsible for many major discoveries, such as the chemical basis for ozone destruction and the mechanism of antifreeze action in Antarctic fishes. Antarctic scientists have discovered wood and moss samples in glacial till (calling into question the age of the Antarctic ice cap), bioactive and potentially anti-tumor chemicals in sponges, and a mysterious fresh water lake (Lake Vostok) hidden under two miles of ice. High- tech astrophysical research at the South Pole seeks to answer basic questions about the nature of our universe.
In terms of sheer numbers, the United States fields more science groups and more personnel than any other single country. During the most recent austral summer season (August 2000- February 2001), approximately 130 science groups comprised of about 610 researchers will deploy to Antarctica. These scientists come from universities and research institutions all over the country. Often, they work in collaboration with researchers from other countries, such as New Zealand, Australia, Russia, Argentina, Chile, Italy, France, and England. The USAP also has a long tradition of hosting visiting scientists from other Antarctic treaty nations.
The USAP groups science into six sub-programs: Aeronomy and Astrophysics, Biology and Medicine, Environmental Monitoring, Geology and Geophysics, Glaciology, and Oceans and Climate Systems. We provide a brief summary of each of these programs below, along with links to websites of scientists working in those areas. Additional information on Antarctic science is available from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), and the Antarctic programs of other treaty nations. Links to these websites are also provided.
Finally, in the near future we will be providing periodic profiles of Antarctic science projects. In these profiles, well focus on the scientists themselves, the scientific questions they are trying to answer, their methods and logistics, and their discoveries.
Aeronomy & Astrophysics
Research projects in this program take advantage of the unique atmospheric conditions over Antarctica to study atmospheric physics and chemistry, particularly regarding ozone degradation and atmospheric mixing. Since the 1986 National Ozone Expedition, researchers have diligently tracked annual fluctuations in the Antarctic ozone layer. Several factors conspire to produce an ozone hole over Antarctica, factors that are largely absent in the Arctic. Circumpolar wind circulation creates a polar vortex during the winter and spring that effectively isolates Antarctica from the rest of the atmosphere, preventing mixing. In addition, the polar vortex causes a thermal isolation, keeping Antarctica colder than it would otherwise be. The cold temperatures are necessary for the formation of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) thought to play a key part in ozone destruction. PSCs, also called nacreous or mother-of-pearl clouds because of the colorful way they reflect and refract sunlight, only form when stratospheric temperatures plummet to about -80 degrees C and both water and nitric acid condense out of the air. USAP scientists continue to study PSCs for clues to the chemistry of ozone destruction.
Antarctica is also a prime location for the study of magnetospheric and ionospheric processes, such as auroras and radio wave phenomena. Cosmologists and astrophysicists, such as those involved in the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Array (AMANDA), take advantage of magnetic conditions and the presence of a giant, natural particle detection medium in the form of the ice cap to study cosmic rays and neutrinos. Giant detector arrays are deployed below the ice near Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA) encompasses a variety of individual projects studying interstellar and intergalactic gases, the processes of planet formation, the cosmic microwave background, and infrared radiation from nearby star-forming regions. Most of this work also takes place at the South Pole, where six months of darkness and crystal-clear air produce excellent viewing conditions.
South Pole does not have a monopoly on astrophysical research, however. The Long Duration Ballooning Program is based at Williams Field, on the Ross Ice Shelf near McMurdo Station. From there, scientists launch enormous balloons that circumnavigate the continent at high altitude. These balloons carry sophisticated instruments designed to measure astronomical and cosmological elements as diverse as the solar photosphere and the cosmic microwave background.
Select Aeronomy & Astrophysics science projects with web sites:
AMANDA-Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array
Dr. Robert Morse
University of Wisconsin
Atmospheric Physics: MeV X-Ray Bursts
Dr. Robert Lin
University of California Berkeley
Long Duration Balloon Program
Mr. Steven Peterzen
National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF)
TopHat LDB 2000-2001 Antarctic Campaign
Dr. Stephan Meyer
University of Chicago
Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA): Polar Operations
Mr. Robert Pernic
Astronomical Submillimeter Telescope/Remote Observatory (AST/RO)
Dr. Antony Stark
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
High Latitude Magnetic Pulsations
Dr. Mark Engebretson
Global Thunderstorm Activity and its Effects on the Radiation Belts and the Lower Ionosphere
Dr. Umran Inan
South Pole Air Shower Experiment - 2 (SPASE-2)
Dr. Thomas Gaisser
University of Delaware
Riometry in Antarctica and Conjugate Regions
Dr. Theodore Rosenberg
University of Maryland at College Park
Polar Experiment Network for Geophysical Upper-Atmospheric Investigations (PENGUIn)
Dr. Theodore Rosenberg
University of Maryland at College Park
Dr. Masaki Ejiri
National Institute of Polar Research
Solar and Heliospheric Studies with Antarctic Cosmic Ray Observations
Dr. John Bieber
University of Delaware
Rayleigh and Sodium LIDAR Studies of the Troposphere, Stratosphere, and Mesosphere at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Dr. George Papen
University of Illinois
Atmospheric Physics: Ozone Depletion
Dr. Terry Deschler
Atmospheric Physics: Ozone Depletion
Dr. Robert deZafra
Low Frequency / Middle Frequency / High Frequency (LF / MF / HF) Auroral Radio Noise Observations
Dr. James LaBelle
Spectroscopic and Interferometric Studies of Airglow and Auroral Processes in the Antarctic Upper Atmosphere over the South Pole Station
Dr. G. G. Sivjee
Dynamics of the MLT Region using Ground-Based Radar and TIMED Instruments
Dr. Susan Avery
University of Colorado
Biology & Medicine
Since almost the beginning of Antarctic research and exploration, scientists have been fascinated by the ability of living organisms to not only survive but thrive under such harsh conditions. Despite their need to photosynthesize in order to survive, several species of marine and fresh water algae have developed the ability to survive several months of total darkness every year. In some Antarctic Dry Valley glacial-melt lakes, thick mats of algae cover the bottom in a form reminiscent of the very first life forms on Earth. On the surface, communities of algae, fungi, and bacteria flourish inside of some rocks, somehow surviving darkness, dessication, and temperatures as low as -54 degrees C. The seemingly barren soil in some areas is actually home to several microorganisms, including nematode worms. Scientists have been studying these organisms not only to understand their unique physiology but also for clues to the kinds of life forms that might exist on Mars or other planets.
Though the windswept surface of the continent seems utterly inhospitable to life, just beneath the surface of the frozen sea life exists in abundance. The Antarctic marine benthic (bottom) community is one of the richest on the planet, with most marine phyla represented. In many areas, and in particular in deeper waters, sponges are the most prominent organism. Over 300 species of Antarctic sponge have been identified and, in the sponge communities that have been studied, they make up as much as 70% of the benthic biomass. Several scientists are studying Antarctic sponges, as well as other organisms, in an effort to discover new and potentially useful pharmaceuticals.
Fewer fish species live in deep-south Antarctic seas than in other ecosystems, but those that do occur are interesting from a physiological standpoint. Like all marine fishes, their body fluids are less salty than sea water. Since the water temperature in the furthest south regions is at the freezing point of sea water, fish in that water would normally freeze solid. But Antarctic fishes have evolved unique glycopeptide (sugar and protein) antifreeze molecules that protect them from this fate. In addition, some Antarctic fishes (the so-called icefishes) have eliminated hemoglobin from their blood; instead of being red, their blood is clear. Research into the physiology and biochemistry of these fishes has been prominent in Antarctic biology for many years, and it continues unabated.
The Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica is one of the most productive seas in the world. Each summer, a phytoplankton bloom fueled by nutrient-rich waters leads to the growth of vast swarms of krill (small crustaceans similar to shrimp). Several species of whales, seals, penguins, and fish depend upon this krill, either directly or indirectly. Recent research has suggested that the extent of the annual winter sea ice is directly related to the size of the subsequent krill population, in which case the ice cover around Antarctica would affect the population dynamics of the krill predators mentioned above. Assuming further research confirms these connections, a sea ice extent diminished by global warming could have serious consequences.
Anticipating these effects, several researchers are engaged in studies of penguin and seal populations. In the Antarctic Peninsula region, scientists are tracking the breeding success and population dynamics of Adelie, gentoo, chinstrap, macaroni, and king penguins, giant petrels and other sea birds, and some seals. In the McMurdo area, biologists are studying Adelie and emperor penguins and Weddell seals. As part of this research effort, scientists are looking at the behavior, physiology, and energetics of these animals. In energetics research, scientists try to determine how much food animals need to survive and raise young, and how much energy they have to expend to obtain that food. This information allows scientists to develop an energy budget for a population, which allows them to not only predict the impact of fluctuating food resources on the studied population, but also the impact of the population on the environment.
This large-picture, long term approach is also reflected in two large studies, one near Palmer Station in the Peninsula region and the other in the Antarctic Dry Valleys near McMurdo Station. These multi-project Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) programs have several goals, among them to catalog as completely as possible the elements and relationships that define the respective ecosystems and define a baseline condition against which future changes to the ecosystem (if any) can be evaluated and understood. Scientists in the Dry Valley LTER seek to understand the polar desert ecosystem, one that would appear to be very simple but is actually surprisingly complex. Palmer LTER scientists study a very complex marine ecosystem, concentrating on the factors that control primary productivity.
Select Biology & Medicine science projects with web sites:
Pack Ice seal ecology
Dr. John Bengston
National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center / NOAA
Pack Ice seal physiology
Dr. Michael Castellini
University of Alaska
Pack Ice seal genetics
Dr. Donald Siniff
University of Minnesota
Antifreeze in fish
Dr. Arthur DeVries
University of Illinois at Urbana
McMurdo Dry Valleys: A Cold Desert Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER)
Dr. W. Berry Lyons, Project Manager
The Ohio State University
The Use of a Long-Term Data Base and Molecular Genetic Techniques to Examine the Behavioral Ecology and Dynamics of a Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) Population
Dr. Donald Siniff
University of Minnesota
Investigations of Abandoned Penguin Colonies in Antarctica
Dr. Steven Emslie
University of North Carolina
The Influence of Seasonal Ice Cover on Pelagic and Benthic Communities: Long Time-Series Studies
Dr. Kenneth Smith
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
A Training Program in Integrative Biology and Adaptation of Antarctic Marine Organisms
Dr. Donal Manahan
University of Southern California
Control of Denitrification in a Permanently Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake: Potential for Regulation by Bioactive Metals
Dr. Bess Ward
Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) on the Antarctic Marine Ecosystem: An Ice-Dominated Environment
Dr. Raymond Smith, Project Manager
University of California, Santa Barbara
Effects of Ozone Depletion on Antarctic Marine Life
Dr. Isidro Bosch
Foraminifera Research in Antarctica
Dr. Samuel Bowser
New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center
The program managers at the National Science Foundation (NSF) maintain a strict standard of environmental accountability. They recognize that any human activity, including research, will have environmental effects, but they are committed to minimizing those effects. As part of this commitment, the NSF funds projects designed to measure, catalog, and quantify the environmental impacts of human activity, both past and present. The NSF also continually seeks ways to mitigate those impacts. The most current environmental monitoring project is studying the impact of sewage release into the sea near McMurdo Station.
Spatial and Temporal Scales of Human Disturbance -- McMurdo Station, Antarctica
Dr. Mahlon C. Kennicutt, II
Texas A & M University
Geology & Geophysics
For geologists, Antarctica is like a gold mine with a curse. The southern continent is a treasure trove of data for those seeking to understand the history of the Earth and the tectonic ebb and flow of continents. Antarctica formed a key part of the supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwanaland, and as such can offer important insights into the dynamics of the Earths crust and the interplay between tectonics and climate. And because the land is not covered by foliage and is not subject to rain-induced erosion, the rocks of Antarctica and the secrets they hold are accessible. Unfortunately, though, only 2% of the land is so exposed; the rest of Antarctica is buried under miles of ice!
The geologists and geophysicists who study in Antarctica have used everything from simple rock hammers to ground-penetrating radar to airborne gravimetric studies to satellite imagery to overcome this problem. Their research has led to important insights into the formation and movement of continents and the climatic history of the Earth. Current research is focused in several broad areas, including the history of the Antarctic ice cap, Antarcticas effect on global climate, both current and past, and the relationship between Antarcticas tectonic evolution and the evolution of the other continents.
The age of the present ice cap is under particular contention. Some scientists, through the dating of marine diatoms collected from glacial till, maintain that as recently as 2 million years ago a large part of Antarctica may have been both ice free and forested. As additional evidence, these researchers have discovered actual wood samples from collection sites in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other researchers maintain that the weight of evidence points to approximately 14 million years as the age at which the present ice cap became permanently established. The answer will bear on whether the development of the ice cap ushered in an era of glaciation, or whether other climatic factors initiated the glaciation and the Antarctic ice cap was merely a result. Both camps are engaged in active research to resolve this question.
Other researchers are engaged in attempts to better understand the tectonic evolution and current status of the Antarctic continent, including the uplift history of the Transantarctic Mountains. Considerable attention has been paid recently to the West Antarctic rift system, including its current status and its relationship to other land masses. Many of these researchers use microfossils of various kinds to establish the dates of geological events. A considerable amount of deep drilling is involved in collecting samples for these studies.
Scientists are also investigating Antarctic volcanic activity, both past and present. Each season, researchers travel to the summit of Mount Erebus, one of only two active volcanoes in Antarctica, to measure its activity and examine the effect of its gas emissions on the Antarctic environment. Other scientists have established seismic monitors at bedrock locations in the Dry Valleys, on the polar ice cap, and at sites in the Antarctic Peninsula region to both record global seismic activity and better characterize Antarcticas crust and mantle composition.
The NSF also collaborates with NASA to fund scientific studies in Antarctica that bear on space research. A high-profile example of this collaboration is the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET). The dynamics of ice flow in Antarctica produce areas where meteorites that have fallen and collected on the ice sheet for thousands of years are deposited in large numbers. Field members of this project search for these areas and collect the accumulated meteorites. These meteorites are distributed to scientists studying the origin of the solar system and other questions. A few years ago, a meteorite determined to be of Martian origin was found to contain apparent evidence of primitive life on the Red Planet. That conclusion is still under contention, and the search continues for other samples that might shed light on the controversy.
Select Geology & Geophysics science projects with web sites:
GPS Measurement of Isostatic Rebound and Tectonic Deformation in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica
Dr. Bruce Luyendyk
University of California
2000-2001 Geodesy, Remote Sensing and Digital Mapping Program
Dr. Jerry Mullins
U.S. Geological Survey
Permanent GPS Observatory Sites: http://www.scar-ggi.org.au/geodesy/perm_ob/gps/gps.htm
Permanent Tide Gauge Observatory: http://www.scar-ggi.org.au/geodesy/perm_ob/tide/tide.htm
U.S. Antarctic Resource Center: http://usarc.usgs.gov/
Antarctic Atlas: http://usarc.usgs.gov/antarctic_atlas/start.html
Stability of Land Surfaces in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Insights Based on the Dynamics of Sub-Surface Ice and Sand-Wedge Polygons
Dr. Bernard Hallet
University of Washington
http://depts.washington.edu/qrc/research/research.html (in development)
ANSMET: The Antarctic Search for Meteorites / NASA Robotics in Allen Hills
Dr. Ralph Harvey
Case Western Reserve University
Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory: Gas Emissions and Seismic Studies
Dr. Philip Kyle
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Global Positioning System Measurements of Crustal Motion in Antarctica
Dr. Carol Raymond
California Institute of Technology
A Broadband Seismic Experiment for the Study of the Tectonics and Structure of the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Plate
Dr. Douglas Wiens
Antarctic Network of Unattended Broadband Inegrated Seismometers (ANUBIS)
Dr. Sridhar Anandakrishnan
University of Alabama
University NAVSTAR Consortium (UNAVCO) GPS Survey Support
Mr. Bjorn Johns, Project Manager
The Young Marginal Basin as a Key to Understanding the Rift-Drift Transition and Andean Orogenesis: OBS Refraction Profiling for Crustal Structure in Bransfield Strait
Dr. James Austin
The University of Texas at Austin
Support Office for Aerogeophysical Research (SOAR)
Dr. Donald Blankenship
University of Texas at Austin
Scientists funded by this program are involved in a direct study of the ice that covers most of Antarctica. In this era of concern over global warming, there is considerable interest in trying to determine the factors that led to previous climatic changes. A long record of these changes resides in the thick ice caps that cover both Antarctica and Greenland. Glaciologists drill deep ice cores, then analyze the ice contained in them for clues to prehistoric weather and climate. In some cases, the climate record in these cores could extend back as far as 80,000 years, or more. Other researchers studying volcanic debris embedded in ice believe they may be able to gather climate data going as far back as 500,000 years.
In Antarctica, much of this work takes place as part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) initiative. WAIS objectives include correlating the evidence for climatic fluctuation in both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores, integrating the ice core data with terrestrial and marine data, investigating the physics of glacier flow, and trying to determine ice sheet stability and the feedback between ice dynamics and climate.
Each year, glaciologists in the WAIS initiative spread out across the Antarctic ice, drilling ice cores, taking radar soundings, tracking ice sheet movements with precision Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment, and collecting snow samples. One ice sheet phenomenon of particular interest is called surging, where a slow-moving glacier or ice stream suddenly speeds up. Some scientists have postulated that surging ice streams could lead to a collapse of an entire ice sheet (specifically, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet) in a relatively short time, triggering sea level rises and climate changes. Currently, Antarctic glaciologists are studying some ice streams that seem to be moving rather quickly, trying to determine not only what factors are behind the rapid movement but also whether the movement constitutes surging.
A current and very significant element of the WAIS is the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE). In this formidable undertaking, scientists from several countries are collaborating in a traverse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in an effort to develop an understanding of the last 200 years of West Antarctic climate and environmental change. These researchers will spend several weeks driving over uncharted ice, taking measurements and samples. To protect them against the danger of crevasses, the lead vehicle will use a special ice- penetrating radar to establish the route. The radar will also provide important data on the structure of the ice.
Select Glaciology science projects with web sites:
High-Precision Borehole Temperature Measurements at Siple Dome, Antarctica, for Paleoclimate Reconstruction and Ice-Dynamics Studies
Dr. Edwin Waddington
University of Washington
Dr. Gary Clow
U.S. Geological Survey
http://climchange.cr.usgs.gov/coldclimates/SDM (currently under construction)
Basal Conditions in Ice Stream C and Related Borehole Studies of Antarctic Ice Stream Mechanics
Dr. Barclay Kamb
United States Component of the International Trans-Antarctic Expedition (U.S. ITASE)
Dr. Paul Mayewski, Project Manager
University of Maine
Oceans & Climate Systems
Antarctica plays a key role in global climate and energy transfer. The Southern Ocean flows uninterrupted around Antarctica in a powerful current called the West Wind Drift. This current acts as a thermal barrier to warmer waters of the north, and the effect is far-reaching. Thermal isolation establishes an environment favorable to the formation of sea ice, and Antarctic sea ice plays a major role in keeping Antarctica cold.
Scientists in the Oceans and Climate Systems program study the interplay between Antarctica, ocean currents, sea ice, wind patterns, and global climate. In some cases, this involves the direct measurement of energy transfer between the sea and the atmosphere. Researchers also study the chemical composition of Antarctic seawater, atmospheric chemistry and circulation, and the dynamics of sea ice formation and degradation. Much of this work takes place on the two state-of-the-art research vessels dedicated to the Antarctic Program, the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer and the R/V Laurence M. Gould. For example, scientists have recently used the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer as a platform from which to take water samples, measure water column temperature and salinity profiles, measure sedimentation rates, and even measure the rate at which floating ice shelves are melting in response to current patterns. Researchers also routinely deploy bathythermographs from the R/V Laurence M. Gould each year during crossings to measure the variability of ocean temperatures in the Drake Passage.
Other climate research takes place at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, where scientists measure the infrared radiation flux, the chemistry of ozone depletion, and aerosol transport, and at Palmer Station on the Peninsula, where air samples are taken to track the transport of trace chemicals and contaminants in the atmosphere. This program also supports a network of automated weather stations around the continent and ongoing meteorological research.
Select Oceans & Climate Systems science projects with web sites:
Longwave Radiation Processes on the Antarctic Plateau
Dr. Stephen Warren
University of Washington
South Pole Monitoring for Climatic Change - U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory
Dr. Dave Hofmann
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
An Investigation of Sulfur Chemistry in the Antarctic Troposphere (ISCAT)
Dr. Douglas Davis
Georgia Institute of Technology
Antarctic Automatic Weather Stations
Dr. Charles Stearns
University of Wisconsin
Measurement of Combustion Effluent Carbonaceous Aerosols in the McMurdo Dry Valleys
Dr. Tony Hansen
Magee Scientific Co.
Record of Atmospheric Photochemistry in Firn at South Pole
Dr. Joseph McConnell
Desert Research Institute
Other Science Related Links
National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)
Scott Polar Research Institute
British Antarctic Survey
Australian Antarctic Division
Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition
New Zealand Antarctic Institute
South African Antarctic Program
Italian Antarctic Program
Germany's Alfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine Research
Belgian Scientific Research Programme on the Antarctic
Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island and McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
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